Gasotransmitters are gaseous substances produced in various organs and tissues.
Under experimental conditions, mice deficient in amongst the nitric oxide forming enzymes exhibit increased motor and sexual activity and ‘long term’ depression. The name gasotransmitters is related to the term neurotransmitters. These are substances that serve for impulses transmission between nerve cells, including the brain, where such gas transmitters as NO, CO and H2S are generated by means of special enzymes. Gasotransmitters are involved both in the communication between microbial cells and the dialogue between the microbial life partners and the host cells. The nitric oxide producedby the host organism or microbes regulates the immune functioning and cardiovascular systems and acts as a brain neurotransmitter involved inthe regulation of learning and cognitive activities.
Hydrogen sulphide at low concentrations regulates plenty of processes in various human organs, especially the cardiovascular and nervous systems.
Hydrogen sulfide acts as a neuroprotector. Also, most of these patients are deficient in enzymes which produce hydrogen sulfide in the body. Patients with the Down syndrome, by contrast, have an increased enzymes activity that form hydrogen sulfide.
There are some developmentsin this direction.
They are based on useful microorganisms, probiotics that can be consumed with milk products, or in pharmaceutical formulations. Moreover, probiotics additionally stimulate the nitric oxide production by the host cells organism, Probiotic strains of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and coli actively synthesize the most important multifunctional gas transmitters -nitric oxide. The novelty lies in the approach to such use probiotics.
The review article provides an extensive data analysis related to action mechanisms of gaseous substances of microbial origin, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, methane, hydrogen, ammonia, etc). It results in accumulation of significant concentrations of NH3 in the brain. This situation is characteristic of liver cirrhosis and poses hepatic threat encephalopathy. They act as mediators and regulators in intercellular interactions in mammals bodies. Consequently, they are considered asregulators ofthe human behavior, neurophysiological and mental disorders. An excess of ammonia, might be since disorders in the gastrointestinal tract microbiota. The above mentioned gases are among the smallest biologically active molecules which perform vital functions of both multicellular organisms and bacteria.
Gasotransmitters affect the cell that formed them, adjacent cells, and distant tissues and organs and the entire body systemically.
The gas production transmitters and the distribution to various body areas depends on the activity of the cells forming the material of both of the body and the microbial symbionts. The gaseous products are formed as various result eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells’ activity by enzymatic or non enzymatic processes, and can also be gripped gether with air and food. Consequently, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide constitute 20 90%, ‘9 10’percentage, 20950″% ‘210’%, ‘9 30’percent and 00028% tal respectively volume. Quite a few the gas molecules is removed from the intestines. Their numbers vary according to the human’s diet. An adult gastrointestinal tract contains about 20 various ml gaseous products, producing from 400 to 1200 ml per day. Needless to say, the concentrations and activities of gas transmitters are under a combined brain influence and the entire nervous system, the health. They are also influenced by the gastrointestinal microbiota and that of other body areas.
The symbiotic gut microbiota plays an important role in the development and host homeostasis organism.
The majority of these molecules are pleiotropic mediators exerting effects on various tissues and organs. The molecular mechanisms that underlie microbial effects fermentation derived gaseous metabolites are not well understood. Furthermore, this review is focused on gaseous functional roles molecules that perform neuromediator and/or endocrine functions. Anyway, whenever using simple reliable methods for the detection and measurement of ‘short chain’ fatty acids and small gaseous molecules in eukaryotic tissues and prokaryotic cells should enable us to apply these chemicals as novel therapeutics and medical research tools, selective inhibitors of enzymes that participate in their synthesis. Recent data on small molecules produced by gut microbiota in mammalian organisms demonstrate these paramount importance biologically active molecules looking at the biology and medicine. On p of this, recent findings have revealed that interactivity among such modulators/transmitters is a prerequisite for the ongoing dialog between microbial cells and host cells, including neurons. Of considerable importance are also changes in epigenetic transcriptional factors, protein ‘post translational’ modification, lipid and mitochondrial metabolism, redox signaling, and ion channel/gap junction/transporter regulation, It is possible that these metabolites produce their effects via immunological, biochemical, and neuroendocrine mechanisms that involve endogenous and microbial modulators and transmitters. Its physiological, biochemical, behavioral, and communicative effects are mediated by multiple low molecular weight compounds.
Importantly, substances that act as gasotransmitters are synthesized in the gastrointestinal tract both by the host cells organism and various gastrointestinal microorganisms that inhabit it, including Archaea, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Butyrivibrio, Clostridium, Collinsella, Coprococcus, Desulfovibrio, Eubacterium, Lactobacillus, Prevotella, Propionibacterium, Roseburia, and others. They may serve as energy sources, also for the inhabiting microbes. As a result, while using nitric oxide generated by the host cells as an energy source for their own metabolism, for sake of example, a typical symbiont isthe intestinal bacterium Escherichia coli, which lives in the digestive tract.
I’m sure it sounds familiar.|Doesn’t it sound familiar?|Sounds familiar?|right? it turns out that coli is ‘interested’ in thedevelopment of an inflammation in the intestines, as nitric oxide is also produced actively by the immune cells during inflammation. Gasotransmitters play a dual role in the body.
The term ‘psychobiotics’ has recently been introduced to designate the probiotic bacterial strains that are used as dietary supplements to optimize brain functioning and that body activities by making good use of h microbial beneficial effects products, including gas transmitters, on the brain and behavior.
The term ‘psychobiotics’ has recently been introduced to designate the probiotic bacterial strains that are used as dietary supplements to optimize brain functioning and the body activities by making good use of h microbial beneficial effects products, including gas transmitters, on the brain and behavior.